ACID FREE – use to describe materials having a pH of 7 or higher when the concern is that there be little or no acid present to accelerate aging or deterioration.
AQUATINTS – Method of etching prints with the effect of a watercolor. Resin powder is applied to the etching plate and heated until the grains melt and adhere to it. The plate is then immersed in acid successively until the required image appears on areas of metal exposed between the resin grains.
CARBORUNDUM – A hybrid intaglio and relief process using a three-dimensional surface that is built up on a plate using a combination of acrylic modeling paste, ground stone particles and resin.
CHINE COLLE – A process used to adhere different colored or textured papers onto a print. Sometimes a transparent paper is applied over already printed area.
CRAQUELURE – A network of fine fracture lines in the coating layer, such as a ground, paint layer, varnish or glaze.
ENGRAVING – An intaglio process, whereby the artist uses a sharp tool called a “burin” or “graver” to make incisions and cut grooves into the metal plate, resulting in crisp and controlled ink-bearing lines. Often engraving and etching are combined in a single plate.
ETCHING – This process uses acid to create recessed ink-bearing lines. The plate is first covered with a thin acid ground, usually wax. The artist uses a needlepoint to draw the image into the ground, exposing the metal underneath. The plate is then placed in acid and the exposed marks are bitten away, forming the image. Color is achieved either by using separate plates inked with only one color or by applying several colors to a single plate.
FOXING – Pale, brown, diffuse spots that appear on paper or other surfaces, probably either from mold growth or metallic impurities in the paper.
GICLEE – A French term meaning “spray of ink”; a digital printing technique that uses a fine stream of ink, more than four million droplets per second, that is sprayed onto archival paper or canvas. The original image is digitized, and the material to be printed on is affixed to the drum of an ink-jet printer (usually an Iris), which then rotates
at high speed. The spray of water-based inks is controlled by exact calculations of hue, value and density.
INTAGLIO – Prints made from metal plates either engraved by hand or etched by acid. Inks are applied to the heated plate and worked into the crevices. The surface is then wiped clean. Dampened paper is laid on the inked plate, then placed between layers of felt blankets and then passed between rollers of the press. The pressure transfers the ink from the plates indented surface onto the paper, leaving a sunken plate mark impressed upon the paper.
LIMITED EDITION – An image produced via a variety of printing methods in multiple forms. Each edition is limited to a specified number of prints available for sale, as well as a specified number of Artist Proofs (A.P.), Printers Proofs (P.P.) and Presentation Proofs (H.C.). The numbered prints for sale show the number of the individual prints in the edition, i.e. 2/100.